It is the most used contraceptive method in the world in terms of protective efficacy and ease of use. They are the objects placed into the womb and providing protection for 5-10 years according to type containing copper and hormone. There are 3 types:
Inert (unadulterated) IUD: The most common type called Lippes loop is made of polyethylene plastic containing barium sulphate.
Copper IUD: The most used type. Generally in T-shape. Copper wires containing barium sulphate on arms around it are found. The most used models are:
*T Cu 380 A *Multiload (250-375) *Nova T (200-380)
IUD containing hormone
EFFICACY AND MECHANISM OF ACTION
Their efficacy is the same with tube ligation. The pregnancy rates that may form during usage are extremely low. Its protective action mechanism is not completely clear. It shows a spermicide (sperm killer) impact by the effect of foreign body in the womb. Containing copper makes inflammatory effect and causes some biochemical changes, so, prevents fertilization by effects on sperm and egg. Copper has no effect on the ovarian functions. The risk of genital system, breast cancer is not increased in those who use IUD. In studies performed in those who use IUD, decrease in endometrial (the inner membrane of the womb) cancer was observed.
Irregular bleedings, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), ejection of IUD, and perforation of the womb (uterus).
CONDITIONS THAT RIA WILL NOT BE SUGGESTED
POINTS TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION WHILE USING IUD
APPLICATION OF IUD
First a detailed medical history is taken from the women who want to use IUD. Detailed USG and gynecological examination are performed. Smear test is taken. Information about IUD types and differences is given. IUD is generally placed when in menstruation. So the possibility of pregnancy is eliminated and the cervix is opened by bleeding. The person is taken on the gynecological table, speculum is inserted, and the vagina and cervix are appropriately cleaned. The cervix is kept with single tooth tenaculum and the uterus and cervix are appropriately positioned. The length is measured by histometry. The suitable IUD is placed, its ropes are cut in the manner to be left 3-4 cm outside the cervix. Its location is checked by USG. Analgesic and antibiotic are suggested. Suggestions are made and an appointment is scheduled to come for control.
If a pelvic infection is present in vaginal discharges, infection can be treated without removal of IUD. [alternative]