By effects of the growing abdomen and hormones in pregnancy, transient and permanent changes may be in the skin.
PREGNANCY CRACKS: They are seen in 50-90% of pregnant women. In general, they are seen in the lower region of the abdomen, thighs, hip, arms, and breasts. Usually they are observed as pink or silver-gray. No pain is observed; pregnant women suffer only due to annoying itching. Cracks cannot always be prevented. They are frequently seen in those with familial predisposition, who gain excess weight, in the event of multiple pregnancies, in those who are pregnant in a young age, in pregnant women whose skin is thin and white-skinned, in those with over nausea, vomiting in the first months. After birth, the color of a majority of cracks becomes light and silvery. In the next pregnancies, the color of previous cracks may become dark. The best way to prevent is to take plenty of fluid. Balanced weight should be gained in pregnancy. Crack creams should be used to stretch and moisturize the skin. The most used things are almond oil, cacao oil, vitamin E, and lotions containing alpha hydroxy acid. Suggested pregnancy exercises and massage on abdominal region also are useful. Creams can be used since the 3rd month.
PREGNANCY MASK (CHLOASMA): An increase in color similar to a mask emerges on face, forehead, nose, and cheeks depending on melanotropin increasing in pregnancy. It occurs in the 5th month of pregnancy and gets lost at birth. It may rarely be seen at nipples, genital region, axillae, and between the legs of some women depending on friction. Sun lights increases the situation. In order to prevent, creams with at least 30 protective factors should be dabbed on face and go out; in summer, no sunbathe should be taken; extreme makeover should be avoided; folic acid should be taken as support. Even in winter, it is necessary to be protected from the sun.
LINEA NIGRA: It is a dark line extending from groin up to belly button on the middle line. Usually it is frequently seen in the first pregnancy. It is not seen in every pregnant woman. It begins at the 3rd month, gets lost at birth. It becomes even darker when close to birth. No treatment is needed.
HAIR LOSS IN PREGNANCY: It arises from hormonal causes, particularly thyroid hormones, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, particularly zinc deficiency. It is frequently encountered, continues after birth too. Fresh vegetables and fruits (green apple, grape, peppermint, broccoli, and alligator pear can particularly be suggested), creams and shampoos containing biotin and silica can be used.
HAIR CARE: No negative effect of hair dyeing on the fetus was observed in animal studies. After hair is dyed, absorption from the skin occurs but chemicals in the inhaled air are even more. Therefore, hair can be dyed after the 3rd month of pregnancy by hair rinse with cold water in a well-ventilated environment with vegetable dyes by permission from your doctor. Highlights, streak are not suggested. There is no matter to use hair moisturizer, shampoo, hair gel, hair foam, hair spray and to cut hair in pregnancy.
ACNE IN PREGNANCY: Acne forms depending on fattening on the skin due to increasing pregnancy hormones. Light makeup should be performed, regular skin cleaning should be done using sulfur soap twice a day, and pimples should not be squeezed not to form a basis for infection. Products containing benzoyl peroxide, skin cleaning products, soaps can be used by consultancy with your doctor.
SPIDER VEINS IN PREGNANCY (VASCULARIZATION): It occurs on face, arm, neck, and chest, depending on increasing estrogen hormone and vascularization in pregnancy. It is more frequently seen in white-skinned pregnant women. To prevent, no tight dresses should worn, much exercise should be done, and vitamin C should be taken. In general, it gets lost at birth. Redness can be observed on the palm and sometimes on the sole due to increasing estrogen (palmar erythema). They can cause burning or itching. Complaints are removed by giving itching-preventive cream and lotion. It gets lost after birth. Both signs are extremely observed and if it does not get lost after birth, research in terms of the liver is required.
NAIL POLISH, MANICURE, PEDICURE, PERFUME, TATTOO, HENNA, PIERCING IN PREGNANCY
There is no negativity reported by FDA about use of nail polish in pregnancy. Manicure, pedicure are performed in sterile and hygienic conditions by paying attention to the risk of infection. In pregnancy, excessive sweating and sometimes malodor may be a problem. Daily use of deodorant and spray is harmless for the baby and pregnant woman unless the mark is overshot and as long as quality products are used. Tattoo is suggested in pregnancy because of infection risk and blood-borne diseases. Indian henna is the oldest known hair dye. Although there is no study, there is nothing wrong to dye hair with natural henna (Indian henna) in pregnancy, but black henna is extremely risky and should definitely not be used in pregnancy. Piercing (rings or needles inserted by piercing cutaneous and subcutaneous fat tissue or cartilage) is definitely not suggested due to be inclined to infections and allergic reactions because of decrease in body resistance in pregnancy. Those who have previously piercing particularly on belly and genital region have to remove these piercings in a sterile environment when pregnancy is planned.
HAIR REMOVAL AND WAX: Laser hair removal and electrolysis methods protect from unwanted hair. Because light energy is used in laser hair removal, it can be performed after the 12th week by suggestion of your doctor. Electrolysis (needle-type) has no negative effect on the baby, but it should not be applied on nipple hair or abdominal skin. Because hairing increase will decrease after birth, to left these procedures to after birth is truer. Use of depilatories, lotions, hair removal cream in pregnancy is not suggested. Wax is performed by paying attention to cleaning and hygiene.
SUNTANNING IN PREGNANCY: To overshoot a mark may cause early ageing and skin cancer in the skin. To get too much warm in the body by solarium in the first 3 months is considered to have a relationship with spinal disabilities in the baby. Turkish bath, sauna, and solarium are not suggested in the first 3 months. You can go to the tanning booth after the 3rd month by consulting with your doctor. Stay 10 minutes at maximum in the same position; try to stay in a cool site. It may increase pregnancy mask on the face. The women who want to tan in the sun and get brown in pregnancy should not take a sunbath within hours that the sun lights are intensive, should definitely use creams with high protective factor. After sunbath for 35-40 minutes, a break for 1 hour should be taken by receiving plenty of fluid in a cool site. Cotton and thin clothing should be worn. Particularly use of tanner lotion containing DHA is safe. The pregnant women can suntan like this way in a short time without staying in the sun too much and fluid loss. Additionally to these lotions, sun protector cream with a sun protection factor of 30 should be used. Because sometimes it may cause allergic reaction, a test should be realized in a little area in the body before using these products. Use of tanner tablet is not suggested because it causes toxic effect on the baby.
CELLULITIS IN PREGNANCY: Cellulitis (lipodystrophy) is deformities that can be swollen or pitted and have orange peel appearance on the skin. They are fat tissues of the body. Cellulitis increases in pregnancy depending on effect of hormones on the skin in pregnancy, increasing weight in pregnancy, and sedentary life style. In the treatment of cellulitis in the pregnant women, natural-based creams, algae treatment, and massage are used by suggestion of dermatologist. Not to increase in cellulitis in pregnancy, exercises of deep breathing, walking, pregnant exercises, massages allowed by your doctor can be performed. Balanced nutrition, to take adequate fluid, to use vitamin regularly can also be useful.
DRESS IN PREGNANCY: You can borrow or give your maternity clothes. Clothes made of cotton fabrics should be preferred in terms of coolness. Light colored, sparse textured, and wide clothes are suggested. Shorts above the knee, which is not tightly wrapping the waist, are more comfortable than trousers. To overdress is easier when it is cold. According to state of the environment, to take off and to wear clothes is preferred. Because breasts will overgrow in the first 3 months, bras in the exact size, wide underwired bras, and wide strap bras should be preferred. Support bras should be used for overgrown breasts at bedtime. The most important reason of breast deformation in pregnancy is to give no adequate support on time in the breast tissue. Underwear should be large and made of cotton and its belt should not be tight not to prevent the circulation. Shoes should be flat or with low-heeled and light and large. Step-in shoes should be preferred. In winter, zippered boots should be preferred. Pregnancy corset is preferred in multiple pregnancies, in the big baby, in the multiparous women. It reduces waist and inguinal pains because it prevents the pressure sensation and the abdominal prolapse.